If it smells like onion or garlic, it’s in the genus Allium, and it smells that way because of an ancient arms race. Those alliaceous aromas have a lot of sulfur in them, like their counterparts in the crucifers. You can combine them into a Brimstone Tart, if you can get past the tears.
The genus Allium is one of the largest genera on the planet, boasting (probably) over 800 species (Friesen et al. 2006, Hirschegger et al. 2009, Mashayehki and Columbus 2014), with most species clustered around central Asia or western North America. Like all of the very speciose genera, Allium includes tremendous variation and internal evolutionary diversification within the genus, and 15 monophyletic (derived from a single common ancestor) subgenera within Allium are currently recognized (Friesen et al. 2006). Only a few have commonly cultivated (or wildharvested by me) species, however, shown on the phylogeny below. Continue reading
Posted in Uncategorized
Tagged allium, amaryllidaceae, angiosperm, Brassica, Brassicaceae, chemistry, chive, convergence, crucifer, defense, garlic, greens, Jeanne L. D. Osnas, leek, onion, phylogeny, ramp, recipe, sulfur, vegetable
Chili, black pepper, white pepper, and Sichuan pepper
Black pepper, pink peppercorns, chili pepper, Sichuan pepper – except for being “hot,” these spices have as little in common as Sergeant Pepper and Pepper Potts. Their homelands are scattered across the world, and they were spread through distinct trade routes. They are not closely related; they belong to families about as far apart as possible on the phylogenetic tree below. They even aim their heat at different sensory receptors in your mouth. Continue reading
Posted in Flavor, Fruit, Recipes, Uncategorized
Tagged Anacardiaceae, angiosperm, basal angiosperm, black pepper, capsaicin, capsicum, chili, chili pepper, convergence, eudicot, flavor, hot, hot sauce, Katherine Preston, magnoliid, pepper, phylogenetic relationships, piper, Piperaceae, Piperales, piperine, pungency, recipe, Rutaceae, Sapindales, Sichuan pepper, Solanaceae, Solanales, spice, spices, toxins, white pepper