Happy National Pumpkin Day! Turn carving your Halloween Jack-O-Lantern into a plant dissection exercise.
The first Jack-O-Lanterns were carved out of turnips in 17th-century Ireland. While the large, starchy hypocotyls (fused stem and taproot) of cruciferous vegetables are anatomically fascinating, this post will be about the stuff you are more likely cutting through to make a modern Jack-O-Lantern out of squash. Continue reading
Posted in Botany Lab of the Month, Education, Fruit, The basics, Vegetables
Tagged anatomy, botany, Cucurbita, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae, Halloween, Jack-O-Lantern, Jeanne L. D. Osnas, pumpkin, winter squash
Biologist Jessica Savage answers a few of our questions about her research on the physiology behind giant pumpkin size.
In October 2014, a giant pumpkin grown by Beni Meier of Switzerland tipped the scales at 1056 kilograms (2323 pounds) and set a new world record for the heaviest pumpkin ever weighed. Modern competitive pumpkin growers have been imposing very strong selection on pumpkin size for decades. Pumpkin fruit size keeps climbing, and old records are broken every year or two (Savage et al. 2015).
Beni Meier with his 2014 record-winning 2323-pound pumpkin, presumably a specimen of the Atlantic Giant variety of Cucurbita maxima. Photo from here.
Posted in Education, Fruit, The basics
Tagged anatomy, Atlantic giant, Cucurbita, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbitaceae, evolution, fruit size, giant pumpkin, hubbard, interview, Jeanne L. D. Osnas, Jessica Savage, phloem, physiology, pumpkin, xylem
Will seedless watermelons make us superhuman or turn our children into giants? Hardly, but they do give home cooks the power to count chromosomes without a microscope. Just a knife or a hard thunk on the sidewalk are enough to get a watermelon to spill its genetic guts.
If you were reading a Hearst Corporation newspaper in late 1937, you might have thought humanity would eventually be swallowed up by giant carnivorous plants, unwittingly unleashed by uncontrolled biotechnology. The San Francisco Examiner reported on November 21st of that year that the discovery of an “elixir of growth,” meant that “…science may at last have a grip on the steering wheel of evolution, and be able to produce at will almost any kind of species…” including “…a plague of man-eating ones.” In 1937 Americans had much more important things to worry about, just as we do now. Still, that discovery may in fact have threatened one cherished aspect of the American way of life by triggering the slow demise of late summer state fair watermelon seed spitting contests. It doubtlessly paved the way for seedless watermelons, and in 2014 the total harvest of seedless watermelons on American farms – nearly 700 thousand tons – outweighed the seeded watermelon harvest more than 13 to 1 (USDA National Watermelon Report). A similar pattern is emerging this year. Is there no stopping the attack of the seedless watermelons?
CLICK to read. Image from microfilm of an actual page in the San Francisco Examiner, published Sunday November 21, 1937. Found in the Media and Microtext Center of Stanford University Libraries.
And more important, how is it even possible to get seedless fruit from an annual plant? From a plant whose only mode of reproduction is through those very seeds? From a plant that cannot make suckers as bananas do and cannot be perpetuated endlessly through grafts like fruit trees and vines? Such is the challenge posed every single year by watermelons, but thanks to the “elixir of growth” discovered by Albert Blakeslee and subsequent work by Hitoshi Kihara, one of the most prominent agricultural geneticists of the 20th century, the world has an elegant solution. Breeders continually improve the varieties available, and consumer demand keeps growing, yet seedless watermelon production methods have remained essentially unchanged for three quarters of a century. Continue reading
Jeanne introduces the diversity of some American natives, the squashes in the genus Cucurbita.
Spring is officially here, and I have squash on my mind. We’ve ordered zucchini seeds for the upcoming summer garden but still have acorn squash from the fall sitting in the pantry (both are varieties of Cucurbita pepo). Our winter vegetable CSA box recently bequeathed to us the tastiest winter squash I’ve ever eaten, a Seminole pumpkin, which is a different variety of the same species (Cucurbita moschata) as the butternut squash sitting on the counter, destined for dinner. Now between last year’s hard winter squashes and the tender summer squashes to come seems a good time to remind ourselves of the origins and diversity of squashes in the genus Cucurbita. Continue reading
Posted in Fruit, Uncategorized
Tagged America, biogeography, butternut, Cucurbita, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae, diversity, fruit, Jeanne L. D. Osnas, pumpkin, Seminole squash, squash, zucchini